Sensorimotor interaction in deaf children. Relationship between gait performance and hearing input during childhood assessed in prelingual cochlear implant users


Hamlet Suarez, Rafael Alonso, Sofia Arocena, Enrique Ferreira, Cecilia San
Roman, Alejo Suarez & Valeria Lapilover

Conclusions: The results suggest that auditory input is not neutral in motor skills and the complex interaction between them is generated in the earlier stages of childhood development.
Objective: The assessment of gait performance in pre-lingual deaf  children with cochlear implant (CI).
Methods: Gait velocity (GV), using a 10-meter test, was measured by means of three inertial sensors in 10 pre-lingual cochlear implant users (CIU) (10–16 years old) in three sensory conditions: (1) cochlear implant turned on with environmental noise (EN), (2) cochlear implant turned on with EN and with cognitive dual task (DT), and (3) CI turned off (CI-OFF). GV with EN and DT was assessed in a normal hearing control group (CG) (n = 14). Mann-Whitney and Wilcoxon Signed ranked test were used for significance validation.
Results: (1) GV in CG was lower in DT than with EN (p= 0.019). (2) GV was faster in CG with EN compared with the three conditions in CIU (EN, p= 0.006; DT, p= 0.0001; CI-OFF, p= 0.03). (3) CIU had slower GV walking with EN (p=0.037) and with DT (p=0.022). (4) Dividing the CIU sample by age, the acoustic information generates a slower gait for those implanted after 3 years old.

Postural responses applied in a control model in cochlear implant users with pre-lingual hearing loss.

Acta Otolaryngol. 2016 Apr;136(4):344-50.

Suarez H1, Ferreira E2, Alonso R3, Arocena S1, San Roman C1, Herrera T1, Lapilover V1.



Conclusions The assessment of postural responses (PR) based in a feedback control system model shows selective gains in different bands of frequencies adaptable with child development. Objective PR characterization of pre-lingual cochlear implant users (CIU) in different sensory conditions. Methods Total energy consumption of the body’s center of pressure signal (ECCOP) and its distribution in three bands of frequencies: band 1 (0-0.1 Hz), band 2 (0.1-0.7 Hz), and band 3 (0.7-20 Hz) was measured in a sample of 18 CIU (8-16 years old) and in a control group (CG) (8-15 years old). They were assessed in a standing position on a force platform in two sensory conditions: 1 = Eyes open. 2 = Eyes closed and standing on foam. Results In condition 1, total ECCOP of PR and its proportion of energy consumption in the three bands of frequencies were similar between CIU and CG (p > 0.05). In condition 2, CIU have significantly higher ECCOP, mainly in high frequencies (bands 2 and 3) (p < 0.05). ECCOP values decreased with age also, mainly in bands 2 and 3. This behavior is interpreted in the control system model proposed as an adaptation process related with child development.


Posture; cochlear implant; postural control model